Glossary of Baseball Statistics

Baseball Almanac has built one of the most powerful and innovative baseball statistics tool on the Internet. This glossary is designed to assist fans and researchers with the various fields used by our dynamic applications.

"Mention the numbers 755, 4,256, or 61 to any avid baseball fan and they'll probably rattle off the famous baseball records that correspond to those numbers." - Baseball For Dummies (1998)
Glossary of Statistics

Section by Section

Each of the 18,000+ player pages on Baseball Almanac follows the same easy to navigate, but very powerful feature set. If you explore this page carefully, we guarantee you will find an item you have not seen or used before!

The top of each page starts with the player's name followed by a brief introductory paragraph which include basic biographical data in a text format and your first nugget - the day of the week each player was born on (trivial, yes, but try and find this anywhere else for every player in history).

Below that paragraph is a player quote. See Fast Fact #1 at the bottom of this page. The sponsor box is a place where you can add your own message to the player page. A memory, a kind remark, a banner to your site, the choice is really up to you and the money you send will go towards making the pages even more useful.

In the white area below the sponsor box is the player name followed by an autographed baseball card of the player being featured. While not yet comprehensive, Baseball Almanac does have the largest collection of ballplayer images in the world and we add nearly twenty new pictures each month.

Below the name and card (if there is a card) you will find a series of tabs: Career (all the player's career statistics), All-Star stats (all the player's career during All-Star play - this does not include Midsummer Classics they were named to and did not play in), Division Series stats (all the player's career Division Series stats), LCS stats (all the player's League Championship Series stats), World Series stats (all the player's World Series stats) and Trades (each trade or transaction the player has been involved in).

The following fields are seen & used in the biographical data section of our baseball player pages:

Left Column Items

    Birth Name : The full name given to the player at his birth.

    Nickname : George Herman Ruth was commonly called Babe Ruth. His nickname was The Sultan of Swat and Babe.

    Born On : The actual date of birth found on the birth certificate.

    Born In : The city & state where the player was born (not necessarily the city where the player was raised). The is a link that breaks down where every player in major league history was born in order by state and country.

    Zodiac : Where the actual date of birth is known, the zodiac sign of the player is listed.

    Died On : If the player has passed away, the date of that death. After item, regardless if the player is alive or has passed away, is a link to the 100 Oldest Living players, which is always up to date.

    Died In : The city & state where the player died (not necessarily the city where the player has been buried). The is a link that breaks down where every player in major league history has died in order by state and country.

    Cemetery : The name of the resting place as well as the city & state where the player has been buried (where applicable).

Right Column Items

    College : The college the player played at prior to entering the Major or Minor Leagues. If they attended, but did not play, it will have the school name followed by (DNP). If a complete list of alumnus is available, the college title will be an active link to the school's major league alumnus roll. If the player attended a college AFTER his playing career, it will have the school name followed by (PBB).

    Bats : At the plate, were they left -handed hitters, right -handed hitters, or switch-hitters ( both ). The is a link that breaks down how every player in major league history batted.

    Throws : In the field, did the player throw the ball with their left or right hand. The is a link that breaks down how every player in major league history threw.

    Height : How tall was the player when he entered the Major Leagues. The is a link that breaks down how tall every player in the major leagues was.

    Weight : The average weight of the player. From first year to last year weights change, so an average is used here. The is a link that breaks down how much every player in the major leagues weighed.

    First Game : The first time ever on the field or at the plate during a game. Different from a contract date, roster date, or being in the dugout. Their age at the time of that first game is displayed next to the date (xx) and if the box score is available, the date will be maroon in color and link to the actual game.

    Last Game : The last time ever on the field or at the plate during a game.

    Draft : The Year followed by the Round the player was drafted / signed via the amateur draft. Can also contain Not Applicable for players debuting before 1965 OR players who were already signed prior to the first draft. It is important to note that this is the drafted & signed data versus just the drafted data as many players were drafted several times, but refused to sign a contract. Those items are transactions and we are not covering those in this particular section. If the entry looks like this 1966 : 3rd Round (194th) it has the (overall pick number) included which means this player would have been the one-hundred ninety-fourth player picked overall in the 1966 draft.

The following fields, which appear in the same order here as they do on the biographical pages, are seen & used in the pitching statistics section. More information about many of the official statistics can be found in the rule book section of this site. Fields that contain a dash (-) are displayed in that manner because the stat has not been documented in any source.

    Year : The year of the stats. The year is a link that goes to league's Year in Review page.

    Team : The name of the team. The Team link goes to a comprehensive team roster.

    G : Games. Tells how many games the pitcher actually took the mound in and tossed at least one pitch. IMPORTANT NOTE: If the data in the G column is a dark maroon link, click it and up will appear comprehensive pitching logs that show every game the pitcher appeared in and links to those boxscores.

    GS : Games Started. The number of times the pitcher was given the ball to start a game.

    GF : Games Finished. The number of times the pitcher was throwing on the mound during the final out. Could be a game they were in as relief, earned a save, or even a loss.

    W : Wins. How many victories was the pitcher given credit for by the scorer.

    L : Losses. How many games were lost by the pitcher.

    PCT : Winning Percentage. The number of wins divided by (Wins plus losses).

    ERA : Earned Run Average. The number of ( ER - Earned Runs x 9) then divided by the number of Innings Pitched ( IP ).

    CG : Complete Games. Credited when the pitcher throws the entire game without any relief.

    SHO : Shutouts. A complete game ( CG ) game thrown by the pitcher where the losing team did not score.

    SV : Saves. Earned by a pitcher when a. He is the finishing pitcher in a game won by his team. b. he is not the pitcher who earned the win (W). c. he meets one of the following criteria: 1. He came to the mound with a lead less than four and pitches at least one inning. 2. He came to the mound with the tying run on base, at bat, or on deck. 3. He pitches effectively for at least three innings.

    IP : Innings Pitched. The number of innings pitched with decimals for added accuracy. A pitcher with 3.1 innings pitched had three full innings of work then retired one batter in his fourth inning of work.

    BFP : Batters Facing Pitcher. The total number of batters who came to the plate while the pitcher was on the mound.

    H : Hits Allowed. Total number of hits given-up.

    ER : Earned Runs. The number of earned runs (those which scored without the aid of an error, a catcher's interference call, or a passed ball) allowed by the pitcher.

    R : Runs Allowed. A total number of runs, earned (ER) or not earned, that scored.

    HR : Home Runs Allowed. Pitches that were hit by batters which were scored as a home run.

    BB : Base on Balls. The number of walks the pitcher issued to batters.

    IBB : Intentional Base on Balls. Counts the number of times a walk was issued with no intent of ever allowing a hit.

    SO : Strikeouts. Number of batters faced which struck out during their at-bat.

    WP : Wild Pitches. Charged by the scorer only if a runner advances a base and the pitched ball was so out-of-the-zone that it could not be controlled with an ordinary amount of effort.

    HB : Hit Batsmen. Total number of batters struck by the pitcher whether or not it was intentional.

    BK : Balks. A call against the pitcher for making an illegal motion that the umpire views as an attempt to deceive a baserunner.

    HLD : Holds. A stat awarded to a relief pitcher who enters with the lead and does not relinquish it.

The following fields, which appear in the same order here as they do on the biographical pages, are seen & used in the hitting statistics section. More information about many of the official statistics can be found in the rule book section of this site. Fields that contain a dash (-) are displayed in that manner because the stat has not been documented in any source.

    Year : The year of the stats. The year is a link that goes to league's Year in Review page.

    Team : The name of the team. The Team link goes to a comprehensive team roster.

    G : Games. Tells how many games the player actually took the field in or appeared at the plate. IMPORTANT NOTE: If the data in the G column is a dark maroon link, click it and up will appear comprehensive hitting logs that show every game the player appeared in and links to those boxscores.

    AB : At-bats. Count of times in the batters box, but excludes walks, sacrifices, catcher interference, or being hit by the pitcher.

    R : Runs Scored. The number of times the batter scored a run.

    H : Hits. A safely hit ball that that allowed him to reach base safely.

    2B : Doubles. A hit ( H ) that allowed the batter to reach second base safely.

    3B : Triples. A hit ( H ) that allowed the batter to reach third base safely.

    HR : Home Runs. A hit ( H ) that allowed the batter to circle all the bases safely.

    GRSL : Grand Slams. A hit ( H ) that allowed the batter to circle all the bases (which were loaded with baserunners) safely.

    RBI : Runs Batted In. Earned by a batter when a runner scores due to a base hit, a sacrifice, being hit by a pitch, during an infield out (but not during a double play), or a fielder's choice.

    BB : Base on Balls. Stat awarded when a batter is awarded first base by the umpire for pitches called a ball by the umpire.

    IBB : Intentional Base on Balls. Counts the number of times a walk was issued with no intent of ever allowing a hit.

    SO : Strikeouts. Number of times called out on strikes by the umpire.

    SH : Sacrifice Hits. A ball hit that advanced the baserunner at the cost of being put out.

    SF : Sacrifice Fly. A sacrifice hit ( SH ) done with less than two outs, fair or foul, that allows one or more baserunners to tag up and score.

    HBP : Hit by Pitch(er). Total number of being struck by the pitcher whether or not it was intentional.

    GIDP : Ground Into Double Play. The number of times a ball hit by the batter started a double play (two outs).

    AVG : Batting Average. The player's total number of hits ( H ) divided by their total number of at-bats ( AB ).

    OBP : On Base Percentage. Determines what percentage of a player's plate appearances resulted in him reaching base safely. Calculated by adding hits ( H ) & base on balls ( BB ) & hit by pitch ( HBP ) then dividing that by the player's at-bats ( AB ) & base on balls ( BB ) & sacrifice fly ( SF ) and hit by pitch ( HBP ).

    SLG : Slugging Percentage. An offensive ability type stat calculated by taking the total bases [singles + 2 x doubles ( 2B ) + 3 x triples ( 3B ) + 4 x home runs ( HR )] reached then dividing it by the number of at-bats ( AB ).

The following fields, which appear in the same order here as they do on the biographical pages, are seen & used in the fielding statistics section. More information about many of the official statistics can be found in the rule book section of this site. Fields that contain a dash (-) are displayed in that manner because the stat has not been documented in any source.

    Team : The year and name of the team. Links go to a team fielding statistics tool (Statmaster).

    POS : Position. The position assumed by the player while in the field.

    G : Games. The number of games played in the position ( POS ) listed.

    GS : Games Started. A new stat that began in 2000 which shows the number of games the player started in at the position listed versus entering after the opening pitch or later in the game. Data is available for pitchers back through 1876, but position players are limited to 2000-today.

    OUTS : Outs. A new stat that began in 2000 which is a precise number of outs seen by the player while in the field at the position. Taken and divided by three will produce the number of innings played at the position as well. Data is available for pitchers back through 1876, but position players are limited to 2000-today.

    TC : Total Chances. The number of putouts ( PO ) plus assists ( A ) plus errors ( E ) committed by the fielder.

    TC/G : Total Chances Per Game. The average number of putouts ( PO ) plus assists ( A ) plus errors ( E ) committed by the fielder during a game.

    CH : Chances. The number of putouts ( PO ) plus assists ( A ) committed by the fielder.

    PO : Putouts. The number of putouts during a game.

    A : Assists. The number of assists recorded during an out.

    E : Errors. The number of errors committed by the fielding at his position.

    DP : Double Plays. A fielder's total number of double plays which they participated in.

    PB : Passed Balls. A catcher specific stat which lists the total number of balls scored as passed balls against him.

    CASB : Catcher's Stolen Bases. A catcher specific stat which lists the total number of successful steals against him.

    CACS : Catcher's Caught Stealing. A catcher specific stat which lists the total number of baserunners he caught stealing.

    FLD% : Fielding Percentage. A measure of a fielder's ability calculated by adding assists ( A ) and putouts ( PO ) then dividing it by the number of assists ( A ) plus putouts ( PO ) plus errors ( E ).

    RF : Range Factor. A Stats Inc. measure of a player's range in the field calculated by adding assists ( A ) and putouts ( PO ) then dividing it by the number of Inning Outs ( INNOUTS ) x 9.

    ZR : Zone Rating. A new stat that began in 2000 by Stats Inc. which measures a player's skill in his fielding zone.

The following fields, which appear in the same order here as they do on the biographical pages, are seen & used in the miscellaneous statistics section. More information about many of the official statistics can be found in the rule book section of this site. Fields that contain a dash (-) are displayed in that manner because the stat has not been documented in any source.

Baserunning Statistics

    Team : The year and name of the team. Links go to a team statistics tool (Statmaster).

    SB : Stolen Bases. The number of bases successfully stolen by a baserunner.

    CS : Caught Stealing. The number of times a baserunner was caught attempting to steal a base.

    SB% : Stolen Base Percentage. The measure of how successful a base stealer is calculated by taking the stolen bases ( SB ) and dividing it by the number of stolen base attempts - stolen bases ( SB ) plus caught stealing ( CS ).

Other Positions

    PH : Number of games the player appeared in as a pinch hitter.

    PR : Number of games the player appeared in as a pinch runner.

    DH: Number of games the player appeared in as a designated hitter.

Common Hitting Ratios

    AB/HR : At-Bats per Home Runs. A power ratio calculated by dividing the number of at-bats by home runs hits.

    AB/K : At-Bats per Strikeouts. A success at the plate ratio calculated by dividing the number of at-bats by strikeouts.

    AB/RBI : At-Bats per Runs Batted In. A scoring runs ratio that determines the number of runs batted in based on a players total at-bats.

Common Pitching Ratios

    K/BB : Strikeouts to Base on Balls Ratio. Strikeouts divided by base on balls ( BB ) / walks given-up.

    K/9 : Strikeouts per 9-Innings Pitched. The number of strikeouts averaged during every nine innings of work.

    BB/9 : Base on Balls per 9-Innings Pitched. The number of base on balls ( BB ) averaged during every nine innings of work.

The following fields, which appear in the same order here as they do on the biographical pages, are seen & used in the miscellaneous items of interest section.

    Team : The year and name of the team. Links go to the full team roster.

    Uniform Numbers : The uniform numbers worn by a player during the season in order of appearance.

    Salary : The amount of money paid to a player during a season NOT including bonuses.

    ALL-STAR : A link, which reads Stats, that goes to a player's appearance at the Midsummer Classic - includes ALL the All-Star Games they were named too and not just those in which they played in. A dash (-) in this column means the player did not make the All-Star team. A n/a in this column means no All-Star Game was played in that particular season.

    WORLD SERIES : A link, which reads Stats, that goes to a player's appearance at the Fall Classic - includes ALL the World Series rosters they were on and not just those in which they played in. A dash (-) in this column means the player did not make it to the World Series. A n/a in this column means no World Series was played in that particular season.

Baseball Almanac Glossary of Baseball Statistics & Abbreviations


The intro section, near the top of each page and directly next to the typewriter, includes a quote made by the player or about the player.

Did you know that our player pages have never once stopped evolving. In 2007 alone we added all the tabs seen across the top of each page and many more surprise upgrades are coming soon!

The fast facts section (text at the bottom of each page) includes a link to a list of rookies that appeared in the same league during the same year of the player you are reading about, a note about the integrated links found in the team names, and a request for donations / support - this section is also fully editable and if you have fast facts you would like for us to include about any player please email us.

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